Stockholm: The European Green Capital Award
Presentation written by: Jue WANG & Yachun XIE
Presentation supervised by: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Elena M. BARBU, firstname.lastname@example.org
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populated city in the Nordic countries. Stockholm is the cultural, media, political, and economic center of Sweden. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.
Stockholm was the first city to receive the award European Green Capital by the EU Commission in 2010 for that it has an integrated administrative system that guarantees that environmental aspects are considered in budgets, operational planning, reporting and monitoring ; it has cut carbon dioxide emissions by 25% per inhabitant since 1990; it has adopted the objective of being fossil fuel free by 2050.
The presentation is divided into four parts: (1) several information about the city, (2) environmental policy, (3) social policy, and (4) economic development.
Stockholm is located on Sweden’s south-central east coast, where the Sweden’s third largest lake Mälaren flows out into the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consist of fourteen islands that are continuous with the Stockholm archipelago. There are total of 24,000 islands including which in the suburbs.
Stockholm covers an area of 186 square kilometers. The entire Stockholm metropolitan area consist of 26 municipalities. About 950,000 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area (2016), making it the most populous city in the Nordic region. Of the population of 935,619 in 2016, 461,677 were men and 473,942 women. The average age is 40 years. 32,1% of Stockholm’s residents are of an immigrant or non-Swedish background.
Stockholm is an elegant and prosperous city. It is the hometown of Nobel. As the capital of Sweden, Stockholm not only has many national cultural institutes and UNESCO World Heritage sites, but also has over 50 different kinds of museums in the city. In 1998, Stockholm was named European Capital of Culture. Research and higher education in the sciences started in Stockholm in the 18th century, with education in medicine and various research institutions such as the Stockholm Observatory.
The vast majority of Stockholm residents work in the service industry. The almost total absence of heavy industry (and fossil fuel power plants) makes Stockholm one of the world’s cleanest metropolises. The last decade has seen a significant number of jobs created in high technology companies. A major IT centre is located in Kista, in northern Stockholm. Stockholm is Sweden’s financial centre. Major Swedish banks and insurance companies are headquartered in Stockholm. Stockholm is also home to Sweden’s foremost stock exchange. Additionally, about 45% of Swedish companies with more than 200 employees are headquartered in Stockholm, such as H&M. In recent years, tourism has played an important part in the city’s economy.
Stockholm has an extensive public transport system, including subways, suburban railroads, two urban railways, three light rail systems and trams, as well as numerous bus routes and ferries in the city. Stockholm’s railway is the center of Sweden, its central station is the busiest train station in the Nordic region. Stockholm makes hub for the Nordic Expressway and has cruise lines to coastal cities along the Baltic Sea. The Stockholm-Arlanda International Airport is the largest and the busiest airport in the Nordic region.
Stockholm is one of the cleanest capitals in the world. The city was granted the 2010 European Green Capital Award by the EU Commission. According to the European Cities Monitor 2010, Stockholm is the best city in terms of freedom from pollution. Surrounded by 219 nature reserves, Stockholm has around 1,000 green spaces, which corresponds to 30% of the city’s area. In fact the waters of downtown Stockholm serve as spawning grounds for multiple fish species. As for carbon dioxide emissions, the government goal was to have only clean vehicles in the city by 2011.
Stockholm became the first European Green Capital thanks to sustained and successful environmental work characterized by early efforts in district heating and a well-developed system of public transport. The City adopted its first comprehensive environmental programme in 1976. Since then, a line of programmes has been put forward, with persistently high ambitions and new challenges. And now, the plan goes on “the environmental programme 2016-2019” which is the ninth consecutive effort. The city also needs to expand, develop and maintain all infrastructure like streets, power lines, and public transport. The high ambitions within the area of climate and the environment must be matched by efforts for a socially cohesive city. Vision 2040 builds on the principle that the city grows with the individual at its centre, and with respect for the limits of nature without jeopardizing the living conditions of future generations. The vision is a strategic objective for sustainable construction and housing, an environmentally friendly lifestyle, climate-smart transport, and a clean and beautiful urban environment.
The environmental programme clarifies the City’s direction. A large dose of innovative competence is required to meet the challenges and reach the City’s targets. Many of these challenges affect several different sectors, and the City needs to continuously seek new forms of cooperation and new ways of thinking.
The environmental programme of the City of Stockholm is valid from 2016 until the passing of 2019. The environmental programme is centred around six comprehensive environmental targets.
The supply of energy is of central importance to our prosperity. The growth of the city creates a demand for more energy, while at the same time the city’s increasing density provides the conditions for more energy-efficient buildings and transports. The climate issue is seen as the largest challenge of our time. Air pollution from combustion also creates environmental and health problems. With a view to reducing the climate impact, improving energy efficiency and shifting to using more renewable energy, Stockholm aims to establish an energy-efficient and resource-efficient society.
In order to achieve this goal, the city of Stockholm has taken a number of measures: All the City’s units actively contributing to phasing out the use of fossil fuels and working toward reduced energy use in buildings, operations and transports; The City actively striving for residents and others operating in the city to participate in reaching the target; The City reducing its demand for purchased energy during the programme period by ten percent compared to the reference year of 2015; Where feasible, seeking more far-reaching energy-efficiency measures, with the aim of halving the amount of purchased energy.
The population of Stockholm is growing, which results in more trips and transports. It also creates the conditions for a continued expansion of public transport and paths for cyclists and pedestrians. Above all, road traffic is one of the City’s biggest challenges from both a climate and health perspective and for accessibility and well being in the city. Rail traffic, construction machines and sea and air traffic also contribute to environmental effects from fossil fuels, noise from engines and carriageways, barrier effects of roads and rail as well as air pollution from wear of tyres and roads and combust fuels. A switch to high capacity and environmentally friendly modes of transport such as public transport, environmentally certified heavy vehicles, shipping, walking and cycling is necessary. For all motorized means of transport, fossil independence and increased energy efficiency is also necessary.
In this regard, Stockholm’s goal is to reduce car traffic, improve air quality, reduce the noise of vehicles, beautify the urban environment and make it more attractive, and reduce the fossil energy in the transport sector. The Government has taken the following measures: adjusting parking fees or policies, using waterways instead of road transport, producing and developing fuel and vehicles capable of generating lower air, reducing traffic flow control and speed limits, and building low-noise roads, and design more pleasant environment, etc.
Stockholm’s environmental target Environmentally friendly transport connects to the National environmental quality objectives Clean Air, Reduced Climate Impact, A Good Built Environment, Flourishing Lakes and Streams, A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos, and A Non-Toxic Environment.
The environmental programme contributes to designing all new city districts in the best possible manner for their inhabitants, and ensures that impact and effects on the functions of the ecosystem for plant and animal life are minimized. Demands on land use in combination with current climate changes places high demands on how the City plans and works strategically with green spaces, water bodies and urban environments for recreation, biological diversity and ecosystem services.
Vulnerabilities in the urban environment as a result of climate change will be prevented; A healthy status will be achieved for the City’s bodies of water; The City’s bodies of water will be strengthened and developed for both recreation and biological diversity; In city development projects, ecosystem services will be supported in order to contribute to a sound living environment; The City will have a viable green structure with rich biological diversity; Stockholm residents will have good access to parks and nature with high recreational and nature values; Each City district will be planned with regard to a healthy urban environment.
Stockholm’s environmental target Sustainable land and water usage is linked to the National environmental quality objectives regarding A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life, A Good Built Environment, Flourishing Lakes and Streams, Thriving Wetlands, Sustainable Forests, A Varied Agricultural Landscape, and A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos.
The most environmentally friendly way of increasing resource efficiency (of materials) is to prevent the generation of waste. In Stockholm, material recycling and the collection of food waste has increased. Likewise, the amount of waste put into landfills is decreasing, now totaling less than three percent of all collected waste.
Stockholm is growing at a high rate, which poses increasing demands for clear long-term waste management and continued behavioral change on the part of both inhabitants and employees. The challenge for the City is to find smart collection systems that work in a major city and for all people.
In order to prevent the generation of large quantities of waste in the operation of the city and make the absence of hazardous wastes in the household garbage of the citizens, the city of Stockholm has made considerable efforts: avoiding unnecessary commercial packaging and the use of disposable materials; all City operations will sort their food waste for biological treatment; Popularization the knowledge of classification the garbage to the public; And hazardous waste will be disposed of properly.
Chemicals are important for our modern society. While chemicals provide us with many advantages, they may also bring problems when we are exposed to them and when they end up in the environment. The levels of many hazardous substances are elevated in Stockholm, and in many cases they occur in concentrations that may entail risks to both environment and health. The City will both reduce the risks of chemicals in their own operations and through knowledge diffusion persuade companies and the general public to do the same.
Stockholm City hopes to achieve the goal of reducing harmful substances from household, commercial, construction and other sources; improving the quality of food safety; reducing the use of building materials containing harmful substances; and strengthening the protection of preschool children. There are measures following: Taking the strict regulation and supervision of the development and procurement of chemical products; The City cooperates with actors from commerce, the building sector and other business areas to jointly achieve a reduction in the use of substances that are hazardous to the environment and health; The City contributes through information efforts to an increase in knowledge among the general public regarding how hazardous substances can be avoided.
People spend a large part of their lives indoors. A good indoor environment is therefore of great importance to people’s health and comfort. From an international viewpoint, Stockholm has a high standard of housing development and the city’s housing environments are generally considered pleasant. However, problems remain, mostly in the older property stock, for example, noise in housing units and shared locales, poor air quality, odour disturbances, the prevention of moisture damage, and high levels of radon.
In order to prevent damaging buildings caused by moisture, reduce indoor noise and improve indoor air quality, Stockholm City makes the efforts like: New buildings and renovations are planned with an eye to moisture security; High-risk construction is managed; Optimizing energy; Cooperating with professional industry; Strengthening the construction of housing sound insulation system, and optimizing the ventilation effect of the room.
The human rights policy in Stockholm is first of all subordinate to Sweden’s human rights policy.Sweden has acceded to a total of 50 conventions and protocols adopted at the United Nations, International Labour Organisation, Council of Europe which are aimed at the protection of human rights. In an action plan for business and human rights published in 2015, the government of Sweden sended a clear message about the Government’s expectations of modern business: successful and competitive companies of the future are those that make human rights and corporate social responsibility part of their core business through three pillars of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights : the State duty to protect human rights ; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights ; access to remedy if these rights are not respected.
On the issue of gender equality, the current Swedish government has declared itself a feminist government, devoted to a feminist foreign policy. 12 of the 24 government ministers are women, nearly half of the members of the current parliament in Sweden are also women. Gender discrimination in the workplace has been illegal since 1980. The Swedish Discrimination Act from 2009 demands that employers not only actively promote equality between men and women, but also take measures against harassment. The act also states that employees and job applicants who are, have been or will be taking parental leave may not be treated unfairly. Taking the film industry for example, the statistics, based on 20 productions co-produced through the Stockholm Film region network of investment companies in 2015-2016, show that well over half of the productions included a female scriptwriter, director, or producer. In fact, a staggering 90 percent of the 20 productions included a female producer, while 75 percent had a female scriptwriter, and 65 percent had a female director. Compare this to a report from San Diego State University that showed just 7 percent of all directors in 250 of Hollywood’s biggest productions were women. Among scriptwriters and producers the figures were only slightly better, at 13 percent and 24 percent respectively. The region has worked hard to foster a strong female film-making community. In an industry typically dominated by men, Film-region Stockholm-Mälardalen has made a concerted effort to give women the opportunity to excel.
The District Administrations work in close connection with The Social Services Administration concerning welfare issues. The Social Services Administration provides a variety of services, one of them is the city-wide welfare program. The Social Services Administration supports 150 NGOs (non-governmental organizations) active in Stockholm, with €13m per year. The NGOs operate in different areas, such as preventing homelessness, supporting former drug abusers, helping people with disabilities and upholding woman’s rights.Most of the social services offered in Stockholm rest upon the legislation “Social Services Act” and “Support and Services for Certain Disabled People Act”.
3.2.1 Care for families in need. In order to provide the best possible support to parents, a wide range of services are available : support groups for single or teenage mothers ; parent-training schemes at antenatal and postnatal clinics ; group centres, for local immigrant groups, where support and advice on child care, living and working in a new society, can be obtained ; support families who look after after a single parents child on one or two weekends monthly, and sometimes even the child, thus providing the family with a short break ; monthly income support/social allowances
3.2.2 Care for people with disabilities. Provision for the disabled in Stockholm has improved steadily over the years. The primary aim of Stockholm’s disability policies is that everyone should have access to, and be able to participate in society on an equal basis. The basis for the City’s participation programme for people with disabilities is the Human Rights principle – all people are equal and should have equal rights. The City of Stockholm has an ombudsman for people with disabilities, who offers support in issues concerning municipal care services and assists people with disabilities in any grievances they may have.
3.2.3 Care for the homeless. The social welfare services in Stockholm can provide homeless people a variety of types of help, all depending on the individual’s problems and needs. In addition to housing, a person who is homeless can need help with substance abuse and mental health treatment, job training programs, financial aid and more. Nongovernmental organization (NGO), private entrepreneurs and other organizations work in close collaboration with the social welfare office to provide services to homeless people in Stockholm.
3.2.4 Care for the elderly. The elderly care in Stockholm enables elderly people to remain in their home environment and receive the social services and health care they require. Those no longer able to receive care in their home, due to frailty of age or disability, can request alternative housing where their needs can be met. About 23 per cent of the inhabitants in Stockholm (approximately 125,000 persons) are over the age of 65. About 18,000 people receive daily help with cooking, shopping, dressing etc while 9,000 people live in some sort of housing for the elderly.
3.2.5 Care for the refugees. A smooth introduction to the Swedish society has been made possible by strengthening the incentives of finding a job and taking an active part in employment preparatory activities. A new reform, with the aim of speeding up the integration process for newly arrived immigrants came into force on 1 December 2010. As a result of the reform, the Swedish Public Employment Service has a coordinating responsibility for introduction activities, in which the Employment Service and the immigrant will work together to draw up an introduction plan. This introduction plan includes activities to facilitate and speed up the introduction of the newly arrived immigrant into working and community life.
Corruption, identified by the World Bank as one of the greatest threats to growth, has become one of the biggest challenges within CSR. Sweden remains one of the world’s least corrupt countries, ranked fourth on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. Transparency International Sweden has assessed the 20 largest Swedish companies, and its resulting report shows that Swedish companies perform better than their international counterparts. The best performers in the Swedish study were SEB, H&M and Tele2. Despite the good results, Transparency International continues to encourage Swedish companies, especially those operating internationally, to work more actively against corruption. New legislation against bribery came into force in Sweden on 1 July 2012. Among other measures, it categories the giving or acceptance of bribes as serious crimes. The legislation is largely a result of Sweden adopting anti-corruption conventions in collaboration with the EU, European Council, UN and OECD. Since 1997, the OECD has had a convention prohibiting the bribery of overseas public servants in international business relationships; 39 countries have ratified the convention.
To be specific, the Anti-corruption framework in Sweden can be divided into three parts :
3.3.1 Strategic approach. Sweden has no national anti-corruption strategy but has carried out several risk assessment studies and reports on corruption. These assessments have covered, among other aspects, risks of corruption in Sweden’s local government sector, risks of corruption in public procurement and risks of corruption in the Swedish central authorities. The government has recently created a group, ‘the value delegation’, which will work to maintain public confidence in the civil service by promoting a culture that prevents corruption.
3.3.2 Legal framework. Sweden has a well-developed system of legislation, law enforcement and judicial authorities to deal with corruption. Swedish criminal legislation covers all forms of corruption offences contained in the Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption and the Additional Protocol. A new anti-corruption law entered into force in 2012. The new law covers a broader range of public officials and private individuals than the previous legislation. It also introduced two new offences: trading in influence and negligent financing of bribery.
3.3.3 Institutional framework. The public administration is generally regarded as efficient, providing comprehensive services of a high quality to both citizens and enterprises. The low levels of perceived and experienced corruption in Sweden are linked to the long tradition of The National Anti-Corruption Unit of the Office of the Prosecutor General was established in 2002 after recommendations made by Group of States against Corruption (GRECO). It focuses on collecting information on corruption and developing methods of combating corruption, both at central and at the local/regional levels of governance.
In 2022, the population of Stockholm will reach one million people. This requires continuous development and innovative and effective urban planning. Currently, there are over 100 active and planned construction projects in and around the city – all with a strong focus on sustainability and the stockholmers of today and tomorrow.
3.4.1 Slussen has served the Stockholmers for over 70 years and has become one of the most historically important junctures in the City. It now needs reconstruction to become a vibrant meeting place with modern traffic solutions. Slussen will be rebuilt to become an effective and safe juncture for both pedestrians, cyclists and public transport. The aim is to turn it into one of Stockholm’s most attractive meeting spots with cultural events, entertainment venues, parks, restaurants and cafes.
3.4.2 Hagastaden is one of Stockholm’s largest and most important urban development projects. By 2025, the area between the city of Stockholm and Solna, will be built and developed into an entirely new neighborhood with a mixture of apartments, workplaces, cultural attractions, green areas, world-leading research and highly specialized medical care. It is being integrated with the New Karolinska Solna University Hospital, a completely new university hospital which opened in 2016 to meet future demands for medical care and research.
3.4.3 Stockholm Royal Seaport is one of the largest urban development areas in northern Europe with 12,000 new homes and 35,000 workplaces. Planning work started in the early 2000s and the new city district will be fully developed around 2030. The Stockholm Royal Seaport area (Norra Djurgårdsstaden) will feature the characteristics and density of an inner-city neighbourhood, with a broad mix of homes, amenities and businesses, as well as strategic infrastructure and international port traffic.
The wider Stockholm region accounts for 42% of Sweden’s GDP and has enjoyed strong and stable growth over the long term. Between 1993 and 2009, growth of Stockholm County averaged 4.1% per year. This growth is underpinned by relatively high levels of productivity, though lower than some other cities such as New York.The economy is characterized by its combination of innovative, hi-tech industry and a large, effective public sector.
Stockholm’s strong growth has been delivered while increasing environmental performance and transitioning to a low carbon economy.
Stockholm is a wealthy city with an advanced and diversified economy. The city’s economic success is strongly tied to a nationwide political and economic framework that is widely admired as a global model for economic development. As the capital, largest city and business centre of the country, Stockholm plays a central role in Sweden’s policy-making environment and innovative business climate.
At the national level, Swedish GDP per capita ranks in the top 15 countries in the world. The economy is characterized by its combination of innovative, hi-tech industry and a large, effective public sector. Furthermore, the country is today very well integrated with the global economy, with internationally competitive industries driving recent strong growth that has allowed a continued high level of welfare and extensive public service provision.
Swedish economic growth rates have outperformed most other Western European countries and the US since the early 1990s. The country has benefited from high levels of innovation associated with its well-educated labour force and high levels of research and development spending. Sweden’s international business specialized in sectors where knowledge and innovation have been central to maintaining global competitiveness. Swedish industry is unusually dominated by large companies, and a significant number of multinationals have been successful in global markets. Stockholm is at the heart of the Swedish economy, the seat of national government and the base for many of the country’s large multinational companies. The wider Stockholm region, comprising five counties and 51 municipalities, accounts for 42% of Sweden’s GDP. The city concentrates business and financial services and is a major centre for research, with many universities and corporate research headquarters. It has one of the world’s largest ICT clusters and one of Europe’s largest life science clusters. The city also functions as a regional headquarters for many global businesses. Stockholm’s strengths in advanced innovation-led industries and its position as a political and business centre contribute to very high levels of income, well above the national average.
Stockholm’s economic performance has been strong over the past fifteen years. A comparison with both national and global benchmarks shows relatively high growth – especially relative to other cities with similar levels of wealth. At a national level Stockholm benefits from its position as the capital city, drawing in government and business investment. As the largest city in Sweden it also enjoys agglomeration economies arising from its large and concentrated labour market and the possibility of extensive linkages between networks of proximate and diverse firms, government organization and research institutions..
Stockholm has grown more strongly than other very wealthy capitals, and since 1993 has closed the wealth gap with all wealthier capital cities, while growing more strongly than cities such as Amsterdam, Vienna and Paris. Stockholm’s high economic output is due to a combination of an increasing population and relatively high levels of productivity. The population of Stockholm County has grown continuously over the past 40 years, from around 1.5 million in 1971 to 2.1 million people in 2011. Average annual growth was 0.9% between 1968 and 2011, more than double the rate across Sweden, and substantially higher than in the country’s other major metropolitan regions of Malmö (Skåne County) and Gothenburg (Västra Götaland County). Population growth has accelerated since 2005, with annual growth averaging 1.7% during the past seven years – again more than double the national average over the same period.
Labour productivity (calculated as GVA per worker) is higher in Stockholm than in other regions of Sweden. At SEK 855,000 (around US$136,000) per worker, Stockholm’s labour productivity in 2009 was 23% higher than the national average, and around 30% higher than both other major metropolitan regions in Sweden. Productivity growth rates since 1993 have also been higher in Stockholm than in other regions. Growth has been consistent, aside from slight contractions in 2000 and 2007. During the period 1993 – 2009 annual productivity growth averaged 4.1%, compared with 3.8% across Sweden.
Stockholm’s long term growth, current levels of wealth and rates of productivity are among the highest in the OECD. At the same time, the growth in the city’s population and economy has been delivered while simultaneously improving the city’s environmental performance and transitioning to a low carbon economy. This has resulted in Stockholm being one of the greenest and most economically productive metropolitan regions in the world.
Stockholm’s high wealth, productivity and environmental performance are driven by a strong combination of the city’s eight green economy drivers:
Driver 1: Urban form. Stockholm has a relatively compact urban form, with development concentrated along the city’s main public transport corridors. Today’s urban form is a result of early strategic planning beginning in the 1950s.
Driver 2: Innovation. Stockholm has an innovation-led economy with first class universities, research institutions, and public private technology centres. At the national level, Sweden ranks first on the EU’s Innovation Union Scoreboard.
Driver 3: Investment. Inward investment has grown strongly in Stockholm over the last 10 years, particularly in the high-end services sector. Sweden has one of the highest levels of inward foreign direct investment in the world – higher than that for the United States, Japan and Brazil.
Driver 4: Skills and employment. Stockholm has one of the highest employment rates in Europe, averaging 77% over the last 10 years. The city also has a highly skilled workforce, providing talent for productive knowledge-economy sectors.
Driver 5: Enterprise. Stockholm is based on a business environment that provides startups and SMEs with opportunities to enter and compete fairly in markets and access to substantial venture capital. Over 24,000 companies were newly registered in 2011 – 29% higher than in 2005, despite the global economic downturn.
Driver 6: Energy and resource effectiveness. Stockholm’s energy and water security are strong. Stockholm County’s energy consumption per capita is lower than the national average due to lower industrial activity.
Driver 7: Low carbon. Stockholm has one of the lowest levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In 2011, Stockholm’s emissions were 3.5 tonnes per person, compared to an average of 7 tonnes in OECD Europe. The national grid is now 97% low carbon (mainly hydro and nuclear), while Stockholm’s extensive district heating system increasingly uses waste incineration and biofuels. However, Stockholm’s ambitious target to be fossil fuel free by 2050 requires major strategic decisions on pathways to eliminate carbon entirely from domestic heating and transport.
Driver 8: Environmental quality. Stockholm’s air and water quality have improved substantially over the last 50 years. Policies have successfully reduced SOx and NOx in the air, as well as phosphorus and nitrogen in the surrounding lakes. PM10 levels remain above WHO’s international standards.
Starting from the three pillars of sustainability, Stockholm has put forward many initiatives in protecting the environment, building a smart city and developing a green economy. This region has remained stable in the forefront of sustainable cities and has provided an ideal model for urban development in Europe and even in the world.
However, while Stockholm is growing rapidly and enjoying a positive stage in its development, where many people are attracted to the city to realize their dreams of a good life, all new Stockholmers need housing, workplaces, commercial services and public services such as schools and pre-schools. The city needs to expand, develop and maintain all infrastructure like streets, power lines, and public transport. The high ambitions within the area of climate and the environment must be matched by efforts for a socially cohesive city. In fact, since 1990, overall energy use in the county has remained unchanged. Water use in Stockholm remains substantially higher than the European average, while incineration for district heating maintains high demand for waste. Enhancing energy and resource efficiency should be a greater priority for the city in the short term. Thus, on the road to sustainable development, Stockholm still has a long way to go.
- <<The Stockholm Environment Programme 2016-2019>>, April 2016, by City of Stockholm, Executive Office
- <Stockholm Green Economy Leader Report>, by the Economics of Green Cities Programme at the London School of Economics and Political Science